What are Service Cloud Support Processes?

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In Desk there is one Support Process for Cases, and it uses the out of the box case statuses, New, Open, Pending, Resolved. Closed and Deleted are also valid stages in the Desk Support Process. The Support Process defines the different Stages or Statuses that a case goes through during its lifecycle. 

In Salesforce Service Cloud however, you have the opportunity to create more than one Support Process for different types of cases. The default Service Cloud Process options are very flexible and include these case status values: New, Open, Pending, and Closed. It is possible that in your business, you may need more than one Type of Case and more than one Support Process. 

For example, a Product Inquiry Support Case can be associated with a Product Inquiry Support Process, using the status values, New, Open, Pending, and Resolved. A Billing Support Case can be associated with a Billing Support Process for example where the case status values can be completely different and customizable such as, New, Investigating, Escalated, On Hold, Rejected, or Approved.

1: Here is an example of what a support process may look like in Salesforce Setup

2: Here is what the Support Process looks like from within a case:

Service Cloud can support many Case Record Types, and each can be associated with its own Support Process. This makes the experience for the customer and the agent completely different and appropriate depending on the type of case they created.

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Here is the Salesforce Documentation
Managing Multiple Business Processes